Among the most notorious fake news stories of 2016 was one alleging that Hillary Clinton was running a child-prostitution ring out of a Washington, D.C., pizzeria. This had real-world consequences for the employees of that pizzeria when an armed man decided to "self-investigate" the rumors, as described in "Dissecting the #PizzaGate Conspiracy Theories," by Gregor Aisch, Jon Huang, and Cecilia Kang.
During the 2016 election, another persistent fake news story was that Donald Trump won both the popular vote and the electoral college vote. That Trump won the electoral college by a clear margin is undisputed. While the federal government did not release the official results of the popular vote until mid-2017, a great number of sources, ranging from the more conservative The Wall Street Journal to the more liberal The New York Times reported Hillary Clinton winning the popular vote by margins ranging from approximately a million votes (on Nov. 9, 2016) to three million (NYT estimate as of Feb. 10, 2017).
During the 2016 presidential campaign, fake news sites circulated several stories alleging that Hillary Clinton was in poor health, the implication being that she was not fit enough for the rigors of the presidency. Fake news site 70News dedicated an entire section to these rumors, most of which were bolstered by photos or video clips showing Clinton in moments of apparent frailty or disorientation. This illustrates a common fake news tactic: the use of tidbits of truthful imagery to support exaggerated or unsubstantiated claims. Laura Mallonee writes about this phenomenon in "How Photos Fuel the Spread of Fake News."
Not all fake news is geared toward a conservative audience; liberals may be just as quick to believe falsehoods that seem to confirm their hopes and fears. A February 2017 story run by Alternative Media Syndicate claimed that police forces arrayed against the pipeline protesters at the Standing Rock Indian Reservation raided and burned a protester camp, offering graphic imagery of flaming tipis as proof. This story is completely false; the image was taken from a 2007 HBO film, Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee. Snopes.com debunks the story here.
In February 2018, after surviving a shooting in which 17 of her schoolmates died, Florida teenager Emma Gonzalez became an outspoken proponent of gun control legislation. Not long after, imagery of her apparently tearing up a copy of the U.S. constitution went viral on right-wing websites. This imagery was doctored; the originals came from a Teen Vogue photo shoot in which Gonzalez symbolically tore up a target sign. Photo manipulation is a time-honored propaganda tactic, but is now easier than ever thanks to Photoshop and other editing tools.
A tactic that complicates the fake news issue even further is the creation of "deep fakes." This is the use of motion capture and emerging video technology to create very realistic simulations of real people saying or doing bogus things. Deep fakes can be virtually impossible to spot by sight alone.
Fake news sites intended as satirical amusement have been around for a while. The Onion is a well-known example. Its stories have sometimes been cited or recycled as serious news, however, as in the 2012 case of a conservative congressman who posted a story about an $8-billion Planned Parenthood "Abortionplex" on his Facebook page.
The Onion's Latin motto, "Tu stultus es," simply translates to "You are stupid."
Fake news does not represent new ideas, merely new methods. It is closely related to the much older practices of propaganda, yellow journalism, and tabloid journalism. What all these practices have in common is that they distort fact, or deal in outright falsehoods, to achieve an emotional effect, rather than to inform or educate. The motives behind them may range considerably, though. These phenomena fall under the blanket term of "disinformation."
There are abundant examples of propaganda use throughout history. Below are a few examples:
From left to right: French WWI propaganda, American WWII propaganda, American anti-Catholic propaganda. All images courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
Yellow journalism is a term used to refer to unethical, sensationalistic reporting. Historically, it has most often been applied to the practices of William Randolph Hearst's and (ironically, given that his name has become synonymous with excellence in journalism) Joseph Pulitzer's competing New York-based newspaper empires in the 1890s, especially leading up to the 1898 Spanish-American War (S. Kobre, "The Yellow Press and Gilded Age Journalism," 1964).
Tabloid journalism is a term more familiar to most Americans. It is similar to yellow journalism; perhaps the main difference is that it is less likely to focus on major news stories and more likely to feature headlines on celebrity gossip and purported bizarre occurrences. A prominent (if extreme) example is The National Enquirer:
Image originally found here.